High Consequence Infectious Diseases
High consequence infectious diseases (HCID) are a range of infectious diseases typically characterised by the following features.
- They are an acute infectious disease
- They typically have a high case-fatality rate
- There may not be effective prophylaxis or treatment
- They may be difficult to recognise and detect rapidly
- They are able to spread in the community and within healthcare settings
- They require an enhanced individual, population and system response to ensure it is managed effectively, efficiently and safely.
One of the key HCIDs are viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs). VHFs are severe and life-threatening viral diseases that are endemic in parts of Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Asia. VHFs are not endemic in Australia and environmental conditions here are unlikely to support the natural reservoirs and vectors of any of the haemorrhagic fever viruses. VHF refers to any one of the following four infections:
- Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever
- Ebola virus disease
- Lassa fever
- Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever.
Education, training and factsheets
The identification and management of VHFs requires specialist services including infection prevention and control, and in particular enhanced use of personal protective equipment (PPE).
- HETI My Health Learning:
- Infection prevention and control practices
- Enhanced precautions
- Presentation - Ebola (Updated September 2019)
- VHF PPE donning checklist
- VHF PPE doffing checklist
- Viral haemorrhagic fevers control guideline
- EVD - For Hospitals
- Ebola virus disease control guideline
- Ebola virus disease fact sheet
- Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers CDC- travel related Infectious Diseases Chapter 4
- NSW Contingency Plan for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers
These resources provide a principles based framework and should be used in conjunction with current policies, guidelines, checklists and local risk assessments. The consumables used in these videos may differ to current available products.
- Terminal Clean of a VHF Room
- Routine Clean of a VHF Room
- Role of the PPE Buddy
- PPE Entry PAPR
- PPE Exit PAPR
- PPE Entry P2 Mask
- PPE Exit P2 Mask
An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic caused by a new influenza virus to which there is little or no pre-existing immunity in the human population. Influenza pandemics are impossible to predict; and they may be mild or cause severe disease or death.
Refer to NSW Health Influenza Pandemic Plan.
- NSW Health Infectious Diseases
- Safety Alert Broadcast System (SABS)
- Policy directives, guidelines and information bulletins
- My Health Learning
- Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care
- Australian Department of Health and Aged Care
- Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA) Series of National Guidelines (SoNGs)
- National Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI)
- Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare (2019)
- Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control
- Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases
- WHO - Ebola virus Disease
- WHO - Infection Prevention and Control
- CDC - Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)
- NHS - Infection Prevention and Control
- NICE - Infection Prevention and Control
- IFIC - International Federation of Infection Control
- ECDC - European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control